AKU Civil 1st Semester Syllabus

 

Engineering Graphics & Design

PAPER CODE – 100102 || 100202ESC ENGINEERING GRAPHICS & DESIGN

CREDIT:3

MODULE 1: INTRODUCTION TO ENGINEERING DRAWINGPRINCIPLES OF ENGINEERING GRAPHICS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE, USAGE OF DRAWING INSTRUMENTS, LETTERING, CONIC SECTIONS INCLUDING THE RECTANGULAR HYPERBOLA (GENERAL METHOD ONLY); CYCLOID, EPICYCLOID, HYPOCYCLOID AND INVOLUTE; SCALES – PLAIN, DIAGONAL AND VERNIER SCALES

MODULE 2: ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONSPRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS-CONVENTIONS -PROJECTIONS OF POINTS AND LINES INCLINED TO BOTH PLANES; PROJECTIONS OF PLANES INCLINED PLANES – AUXILIARY PLANES

MODULE 3: PROJECTIONS OF REGULAR SOLIDSTHOSE INCLINED TO BOTH THE PLANES- AUXILIARY VIEWS; DRAW SIMPLE ANNOTATION, DIMENSIONING AND SCALE. FLOOR PLANS THAT INCLUDE: WINDOWS, DOORS, AND FIXTURES SUCH AS WC, BATH, SINK, SHOWER, ETC.

MODULE 4: SECTIONS AND SECTIONAL VIEWS OF RIGHT ANGULAR SOLIDS

COVERING, PRISM, CYLINDER, PYRAMID, CONE – AUXILIARY VIEWS; DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES OF RIGHT REGULAR SOLIDS- PRISM, PYRAMID, CYLINDER AND CONE; DRAW THE SECTIONAL ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS OF GEOMETRICAL SOLIDS, OBJECTS FROM INDUSTRY AND DWELLINGS (FOUNDATION TO SLAB ONLY)

MODULE 5: ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONSPRINCIPLES OF ISOMETRIC PROJECTION – ISOMETRIC SCALE, ISOMETRIC VIEWS, CONVENTIONS; ISOMETRIC VIEWS OF LINES, PLANES, SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SOLIDS; CONVERSION OF ISOMETRIC VIEWS TO ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS AND VICE-VERSA, CONVENTIONS

MODULE 6: OVERVIEW OF COMPUTER GRAPHICSLISTING THE COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES THAT IMPACT ON GRAPHICAL COMMUNICATION, DEMONSTRATING KNOWLEDGE OF THE THEORY OF CAD SOFTWARE [SUCH AS: THE MENU SYSTEM, TOOLBARS (STANDARD, OBJECT PROPERTIES, DRAW, MODIFY AND DIMENSION), DRAWING AREA (BACKGROUND, CROSSHAIRS, COORDINATE SYSTEM), DIALOG BOXES AND WINDOWS, SHORTCUT MENUS (BUTTON BARS), THE COMMAND LINE (WHERE APPLICABLE), THE STATUS BAR, DIFFERENT METHODS OF ZOOM AS USED IN CAD, SELECT AND ERASE OBJECTS.; ISOMETRIC VIEWS OF LINES, PLANES, SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SOLIDS]

MODULE 7: CUSTOMISATION& CAD DRAWINGCONSISTING OF SET UP OF THE DRAWING PAGE AND THE PRINTER, INCLUDING SCALE SETTINGS, SETTING UP OF UNITS AND DRAWING LIMITS; ISO AND ANSI STANDARDS FOR COORDINATE DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING; ORTHOGRAPHIC CONSTRAINTS, SNAP TO OBJECTS MANUALLY AND AUTOMATICALLY; PRODUCING DRAWINGS BY USING VARIOUS COORDINATE INPUT ENTRY METHODS TO DRAW STRAIGHT LINES, APPLYING VARIOUS WAYS OF DRAWING CIRCLES.

MODULE 8: ANNOTATIONS, LAYERING & OTHER FUNCTIONSCOVERING APPLYING DIMENSIONS TO OBJECTS, APPLYING ANNOTATIONS TO DRAWINGS; SETTING UP AND USE OF LAYERS, LAYERS TO CREATE DRAWINGS, CREATE, EDIT AND USE CUSTOMIZED LAYERS; CHANGING LINE LENGTHS THROUGH MODIFYING EXISTING LINES (EXTEND/LENGTHEN); PRINTING DOCUMENTS TO PAPER USING THE PRINT COMMAND; ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TECHNIQUES; DRAWING SECTIONAL VIEWS OF COMPOSITE RIGHT REGULAR GEOMETRIC SOLIDS AND PROJECT THE TRUE SHAPE OF THE SECTIONED SURFACE; DRAWING ANNOTATION, COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD) SOFTWARE MODELING OF PARTS AND ASSEMBLIES. PARAMETRIC AND NON-PARAMETRIC SOLID, SURFACE, AND WIREFRAME MODELS. PART EDITING AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL DOCUMENTATION OF MODELS. PLANAR PROJECTION THEORY, INCLUDING SKETCHING OF PERSPECTIVE, ISOMETRIC, MULTIVIEW, AUXILIARY, AND SECTION VIEWS. SPATIAL VISUALIZATION EXERCISES. DIMENSIONING GUIDELINES, TOLERANCING TECHNIQUES; DIMENSIONING AND SCALE MULTI VIEWS OF DWELLING.

MODULE 9: DEMONSTRATION OF A SIMPLE TEAM DESIGN PROJECT THAT ILLUSTRATESGEOMETRY AND TOPOLOGY OF ENGINEERED COMPONENTS: CREATION OF ENGINEERING MODELS AND THEIR PRESENTATION IN STANDARD 2D BLUEPRINT FORM AND AS 3D WIRE- FRAME AND SHADED SOLIDS; MESHED TOPOLOGIES FOR ENGINEERING ANALYSIS AND TOOL- PATH GENERATION FOR COMPONENT MANUFACTURE; GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING; USE OF SOLID-MODELING SOFTWARE FOR CREATING ASSOCIATIVE MODELS AT THE COMPONENT AND ASSEMBLY LEVELS. FLOOR PLANS THAT INCLUDE: WINDOWS, DOORS, AND FIXTURES SUCH AS WC, BATH, SINK, SHOWER, ETC. APPLYING COLOUR CODING ACCORDING TO BUILDING DRAWING PRACTICE; DRAWING SECTIONAL ELEVATION SHOWING FOUNDATION TO CEILING; INTRODUCTION TO BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM).

SUGGESTED TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • BHATT N.D., PANCHAL V.M. & INGLE P.R., (2014), ENGINEERING DRAWING, CHAROTAR PUBLISHING HOUSE
  • SHAH, M.B. &RANA B.C. (2008), ENGINEERING DRAWING AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS, PEARSON EDUCATION
  • AGRAWAL B. & AGRAWAL C. M. (2012), ENGINEERING GRAPHICS, TMH PUBLICATION
  • NARAYANA, K.L. & P KANNAIAH (2008), TEXT BOOK ON ENGINEERING DRAWING, SCITECHPUBLISHERS
  • (CORRESPONDING SET OF) CAD SOFTWARE THEORY AND USER MANUALS

Mathematics –I ( Calculus, Multivariable Calculus and Linear Algebra )

PAPER CODE – 101102BSC MATHEMATICS –I ( CALCULUS, MULTIVARIABLE CALCULUS AND LINEAR ALGEBRA )

CREDIT:4

CALCULUS (SINGLE VARIBALE)MODULE 1A: CALCULUS: INTERVALS, CONVERGENCE OF SEQUENCES AND SERIES OF REAL NUMBERS, LIMIT AND  CONTINUITY OF FUNCTIONS, DIFFERENTIABILITY OF FUNCTIONS, ROLLE’S THEOREM, MEAN VALUE THEOREMS, TAYLOR’S AND MACLAURIN THEOREMS WITH REMAINDERS; INDETERMINATE FORMS AND L’HOSPITAL’S RULE; MAXIMA AND MINIMA, RIEMANN INTEGRATION, FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS.

MODULE 1B: CALCULUS: EVOLUTES AND INVOLUTES; EVALUATION OF DEFINITE AND IMPROPER INTEGRALS; BETA AND GAMMA FUNCTIONS AND THEIR PROPERTIES; APPLICATIONS OF DEFINITE INTEGRALS TO EVALUATE SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES OF REVOLUTIONS.

MODULE 1C: SERIES: (PREREQUISITE 2B) POWER SERIES, TAYLOR’S SERIES. SERIES FOR EXPONENTIAL, TRIGONOMETRIC AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS; FOURIER SERIES: HALF RANGE SINE AND COSINE SERIES, PARSEVAL’S THEOREM

TEXTBOOKS/REFERENCES:

  • G.B. THOMAS AND R.L. FINNEY, CALCULUS AND ANALYTIC GEOMETRY, 9TH EDITION, PEARSON, REPRINT, 2002.
  • VEERARAJAN T., ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS FOR FIRST YEAR, TATA MCGRAW- HILL, NEW DELHI, 2008.
  • RAMANA B.V., HIGHER ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS, TATA MCGRAW HILL NEW DELHI, 11TH REPRINT, 2010.
  • N.P. BALI AND MANISH GOYAL, A TEXT BOOK OF ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS, LAXMI PUBLICATIONS,REPRINT, 2010.
  • B.S. GREWAL, HIGHER ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS, KHANNA PUBLISHERS, 35TH EDITION, 2000.

MATRICES AND LINEAR ALGEBRAMODULE 2A: MATRICES (IN CASE VECTOR SPACES IS NOT TO BE TAUGHT)ALGEBRA OF MATRICES, INVERSE AND RANK OF A MATRIX, RANK-NULLITY THEOREM; SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS; SYMMETRIC, SKEW-SYMMETRIC AND ORTHOGONAL MATRICES;  DETERMINANTS; EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS; DIAGONALIZATION OF MATRICES; CAYLEY-HAMILTON THEOREM, ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATION AND QUADRATIC TO CANONICAL FORMS.

MODULE 2B: MATRICES (IN CASE VECTOR SPACES IS TO BE TAUGHT)

MATRICES, VECTORS: ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION, MATRIX MULTIPLICATION; LINEAR SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS, LINEAR INDEPENDENCE, RANK OF A  MATRIX, DETERMINANTS, CRAMER’S RULE, INVERSE OF A MATRIX, GAUSS ELIMINATION AND GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION.

MODULE 2C: VECTOR SPACES (PREREQUISITE 4B) VECTOR SPACE, LINEAR DEPENDENCE OF VECTORS, BASIS, DIMENSION; LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS (MAPS), RANGE AND KERNEL OF A LINEAR MAP, RANK AND NULLITY, INVERSE OF A LINEAR TRANSFORMATION, RANK- NULLITY THEOREM, COMPOSITION OF LINEAR MAPS, MATRIX ASSOCIATED WITH A LINEAR MAP.

MODULE 2D: VECTOR SPACES (PREREQUISITE 4B-C) EIGENVALUES, EIGENVECTORS, SYMMETRIC, SKEW-SYMMETRIC AND ORTHOGONAL MATRICES, EIGENBASES. DIAGONALIZATION; INNER PRODUCT SPACES, GRAM-SCHMIDT ORTHOGONALIZATION.

TEXTBOOKS/REFERENCES:

  • D. POOLE, LINEAR ALGEBRA: A MODERN INTRODUCTION, 2ND EDITION, BROOKS/COLE, 2005.
  • V. KRISHNAMURTHY, V.P. MAINRA AND J.L. ARORA, AN INTRODUCTION TO LINEAR ALGEBRA, AFFILIATED EAST–WEST PRESS, REPRINT 2005.
  • ERWIN KREYSZIG, ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS, 9TH EDITION, JOHN WILEY & SONS, 2006.
  • VEERARAJAN T., ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS FOR FIRST YEAR, TATA MCGRAW-HILL, NEW DELHI, 2008.
  • N.P. BALI AND MANISH GOYAL, A TEXT BOOK OF ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS, LAXMI PUBLICATIONS, REPRINT, 2010.
  • B.S. GREWAL, HIGHER ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS, KHANNA PUBLISHERS, 35TH EDITION, 2000

Basic Electrical Engineering

PAPER CODE – 100101 || 100201ESC BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

CREDIT:5

MODULE 1: DC CIRCUITSELECTRICAL CIRCUIT ELEMENTS (R, L AND C), VOLTAGE AND CURRENT SOURCES,KIRCHHOFF CURRENT AND VOLTAGE LAWS, ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE CIRCUITS WITH DCEXCITATION. STAR-DELTA CONVERSION, NETWORK THEOREMS (SUPERPOSITION, THEVENIN, NORTON AND MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREMS). TIME-DOMAIN ANALYSIS OF FIRST-ORDER RL AND RC CIRCUITS

MODULE 2: AC CIRCUITS REPRESENTATION OF SINUSOIDAL WAVEFORMS, PEAK, RMS AND AVERAGE VALUES (FORMFACTOR AND PEAK FACTOR), IMPEDANCE OF SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUIT, PHASORREPRESENTATION, REAL POWER, REACTIVE POWER, APPARENT POWER, POWER FACTOR, POWER TRIANGLE. ANALYSIS OF SINGLE-PHASE AC CIRCUITS CONSISTING OF R, L, C, RL, RC,RLC COMBINATIONS (SERIES AND PARALLEL), RESONANCE. THREE-PHASE BALANCEDCIRCUITS, VOLTAGE AND CURRENT RELATIONS IN STAR AND DELTA CONNECTIONS.

MODULE 3: MAGNETIC CIRCUITS: INTRODUCTION, SERIES AND PARALLEL MAGNETIC CIRCUITS, ANALYSIS OF SERIESAND PARALLEL MAGNETIC CIRCUITS.

MODULE 4: TRANSFORMERS MAGNETIC MATERIALS, BH CHARACTERISTICS, IDEAL AND PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER,EMF EQUATION, EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT, LOSSES IN TRANSFORMERS, REGULATION ANDEFFICIENCY. AUTO-TRANSFORMER AND THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS.

MODULE 5: ELECTRICAL MACHINES CONSTRUCTION, WORKING, TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERISTIC AND SPEED CONTROL OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR. GENERATION OF ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELDS, CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF A THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR, SIGNIFICANCE OFTORQUE-SLIP CHARACTERISTIC. LOSS COMPONENTS AND EFFICIENCY, STARTING AND SPEEDCONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR. CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS.

MODULE 6: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS COMPONENTS OF LT SWITCHGEAR: SWITCH FUSE UNIT (SFU), MCB, ELCB, MCCB, TYPES OF WIRES AND CABLES, EARTHING. TYPES OF BATTERIES, IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS FOR BATTERIES. ELEMENTARY CALCULATIONS FOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION,POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT AND BATTERY BACKUP.

SUGGESTED TEXT / REFERENCE BOOKS

  • D. P. KOTHARI AND I. J. NAGRATH, “BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING”, TATA MCGRAW HILL, 2010.
  • D. C. KULSHRESHTHA, “BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING”, MCGRAW HILL, 2009.
  • L. S. BOBROW, “FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING”, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2011.
  • E. HUGHES, “ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY”, PEARSON, 2010.
  • V. D. TORO, “ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS”, PRENTICE HALL INDIA, 1989.
  • BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING BY FITZERALD, ET AL, TATA MCGRAW HILL
  • FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICAL ENGG. BY R. PRASAD, PHI PUBLICATION
  • BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING BY V.K. MEHTA AND ROHIT MEHTA, S.CHAND PUBLICATION

Physics (Mechanics & Mechanics of Solids)

PAPER CODE – 101101BSC PHYSICS (MECHANICS & MECHANICS OF SOLIDS)

CREDIT:5.5

MODULE 1: VECTOR MECHANICS OF PARTICLES TRANSFORMATION OF SCALARS AND VECTORS UNDER ROTATION TRANSFORMATION; FORCES IN NATURE; NEWTON’S LAWS AND ITS COMPLETENESS IN DESCRIBING PARTICLE MOTION; FORM INVARIANCE OF NEWTON’S SECOND LAW; SOLVING NEWTON’S EQUATIONS OF MOTION IN POLAR COORDINATES; PROBLEMS INCLUDING CONSTRAINTS AND FRICTION; EXTENSION TO CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL COORDINATES; POTENTIAL ENERGY FUNCTION; F = – GRAD V, EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES AND MEANING OF GRADIENT; CONSERVATIVE AND NON-CONSERVATIVE FORCES, CURL OF A FORCE FIELD; CENTRAL FORCES; CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM; ENERGY EQUATION AND ENERGY DIAGRAMS; ELLIPTICAL, PARABOLIC AND HYPERBOLIC ORBITS; KEPLER PROBLEM; APPLICATION: SATELLITE MANOEUVRES; NON- INERTIAL FRAMES OF REFERENCE; ROTATING COORDINATE SYSTEM: FIVE-TERM ACCELERATION FORMULA. CENTRIPETAL AND CORIOLIS ACCELERATIONS; APPLICATIONS: WEATHER SYSTEMS, FOUCAULT PENDULUM; HARMONIC OSCILLATOR; DAMPED HARMONIC MOTION – OVER-DAMPED, CRITICALLY DAMPED AND LIGHTLY-DAMPED OSCILLATORS; FORCED OSCILLATIONS AND RESONANCE.

MODULE 2: PLANAR RIGID BODY MECHANICS DEFINITION AND MOTION OF A RIGID BODY IN THE PLANE; ROTATION IN THE PLANE; KINEMATICS IN A COORDINATE SYSTEM ROTATING AND TRANSLATING IN THE PLANE; ANGULAR MOMENTUM ABOUT A POINT OF A RIGID BODY IN PLANAR MOTION; EULER’S LAWS OF MOTION, THEIR INDEPENDENCE FROM NEWTON’S LAWS, AND THEIR NECESSITY IN DESCRIBING RIGID BODY MOTION; EXAMPLES. INTRODUCTION TO THREE-DIMENSIONAL RIGID BODY MOTION — ONLY NEED TO HIGHLIGHT THE DISTINCTION FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL MOTION IN TERMS OF (A) ANGULAR VELOCITY VECTOR, AND ITS RATE OF CHANGE AND (B) MOMENT OF INERTIA TENSOR; THREE-DIMENSIONAL MOTION OF A RIGID BODY WHEREIN ALL POINTS MOVE IN A COPLANAR MANNER: E.G. ROD EXECUTING CONICAL MOTION WITH CENTER OF MASS FIXED — ONLY NEED TO SHOW THAT THIS MOTION LOOKS TWO-DIMENSIONAL BUT IS THREE- DIMENSIONAL, AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL FORMULATION FAILS.

SUGGESTED REFERENCE BOOKS

  • ENGINEERING MECHANICS, 2ND ED. — MK HARBOLA
  • INTRODUCTION TO MECHANICS — MK VERMA
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO MECHANICS — D KLEPPNER& R KOLENKOW
  • PRINCIPLES OF MECHANICS — JL SYNGE & BA GRIFFITHS
  • MECHANICS — JP DEN HARTOG
  • ENGINEERING MECHANICS – DYNAMICS, 7TH ED. – JL MERIAM
  • MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS — JP DEN HARTOG
  • THEORY OF VIBRATIONS WITH APPLICATIONS — WT THOMSON

MECHANICS OF SOLIDSPREREQUISITES: (I) PHYSICS (MECHANICS) ALL MODULES AND (II) MATHEMATICS COURSEWITH ORDINARY DIERENTIAL EQUATIONS

MODULE 3: STATICS FREE BODY DIAGRAMS WITH EXAMPLES ON MODELLING OF TYPICAL SUPPORTS AND JOINTS; CONDITION FOR EQUILIBRIUM IN THREE- AND TWO- DIMENSIONS; FRICTION: LIMITING AND NON-LIMITING CASES; FORCEDISPLACEMENT RELATIONSHIP; GEOMETRIC COMPATIBILITY FOR SMALL DEFORMATIONS; ILLUSTRATIONS THROUGH SIMPLE PROBLEMS ON AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS LIKE TRUSSES.

MODULE 4: MECHANICS OF SOLIDS CONCEPT OF STRESS AT A POINT; PLANET STRESS: TRANSFORMATION OF STRESSES AT A POINT, PRINCIPAL STRESSES AND MOHR’S CIRCLE; DISPLACEMENT FIELD; CONCEPT OF STRAIN AT A POINT; PLANE STRAIN: TRANSFORMATION OF STRAIN AT A POINT, PRINCIPAL STRAINS AND MOHR’S CIRCLE; STRAIN ROSEOE; DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON ONE- DIMENSIONAL MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR; CONCEPTS OF ELASTICITY, PLASTICITY, STRAIN HARDENING, FAILURE (FRACTURE / YIELDING); IDEALIZATION OF ONEDIMENSIONAL STRESS-STRAIN CURVE; GENERALIZED HOOKE’S LAW WITH AND WITHOUT THERMAL STRAINS FOR ISOTROPIC MATERIALS; COMPLETE EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY; FORCE ANALYSIS — AXIAL FORCE, SHEAR FORCE, BENDING MOMENT AND TWISTING MOMENT DIAGRAMS OF SLENDER MEMBERS (WITHOUT USING SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS); TORSION OF CIRCULAR SHAFTS AND THIN-WALLED TUBES (PLASTIC ANALYSIS AND RECTANGULAR SHAFTS NOT TO BE DISCUSSED); MOMENT CURVATURE RELATIONSHIP FOR PURE BENDING OF BEAMS WITH SYMMETRIC CROSS-SECTION; BENDING STRESS; SHEAR STRESS; CASES OF COMBINED STRESSES; CONCEPT OF STRAIN ENERGY; YIELD CRITERIA; DEFLECTION DUE TO BENDING; INTEGRATION OF THE MOMENT-CURVATURE RELATIONSHIP FOR SIMPLE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS; METHOD OF SUPERPOSITION (WITHOUT USING SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS); STRAIN ENERGY AND COMPLEMENTARY STRAIN ENERGY FOR SIMPLE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS (I.E. THOSE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, SHEAR FORCE, BENDING MOMENT AND TORSION); CASTIGLIANO’S THEOREMS FOR DEFLECTION ANALYSIS AND INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE MECHANICS OF SOLIDS, 2ND ED. WITH SI UNITS — SH CRANDALL, NC DAHL & TJ LARDNER
  • ENGINEERING MECHANICS: STATICS, 7TH ED. — JL MERIAM
  • ENGINEERING MECHANICS OF SOLIDS — EP POPOV